Special Committee on Electoral Reform Recaps

This page will be updated as more meetings take place

Meeting No. 3 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Wednesday, July 6, 2016

Summary

“Maryam Monsef spent over 90 minutes at committee, which provided ample opportunity for MPs to quiz her on everything from her own party’s widely-believed-but-never-overtly-stated preference for ranked ballots over proportional representation, to whether or not any change to the First Past The Post status quo requires a federal referendum.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Hon. Maryam Monsef, Minister of Democratic Institutions
  • Privy Council Office: Isabelle Mondou, Assistant Secretary to the Cabinet and Counsel to the Clerk of the Privy Council

Topics discussed

  • Referenda
  • Public consultation
    • Committee budget
    • Objective advertising
    • Participatory democracy
      • Participation of marginalized individuals

 

Watch the meeting here: 

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160706/-1/25351?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 4 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Thursday, July 7, 2016

Summary

“On Thursday, the all-party House committee charged with exploring alternative voting systems held back-to-back hearings to hear what Canada’s current and former chief electoral officers Marc Mayrand and Jean-Pierre Kingsley had to say about making the 2015 election the last to take place under the First Past The Post system.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Marc Mayrand, Chief Electoral Officer
  • Stéphane Perrault, Deputy Chief Electoral Officer, Regulatory Affairs
  • Michel Roussel, Deputy Chief Electoral Officer, Electoral Events

Topics discussed

  • Referenda
    • Time and resources required for and cost of referendum
    • Electoral boundaries
      • Redistribution under different electoral systems
      • Time required for redistribution
      • Voting and voters
        • Online voting
        • Mandatory voting

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160707/-1/25353?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 5 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Thursday, July 7, 2016

Summary

“On Thursday, the all-party House committee charged with exploring alternative voting systems held back-to-back hearings to hear what Canada’s current and former chief electoral officers Marc Mayrand and Jean-Pierre Kingsley had to say about making the 2015 election the last to take place under the First Past The Post system.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

·Jean-Pierre Kingsley, Chief Electoral Officer, 1990-2007

Topics discussed

  • Electoral system
    • Gender parity
    • Referenda
      • 2005 BC-STV referendum
      • Turnout for potential referenda
      • Voting and voters
        • Online voting
        • Security
        • Party list ballots

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160707/-1/25354?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 6 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Monday, July 25, 2016

Summary

“The special House committee on electoral reform was back in session on Wednesday afternoon as MPs returned to the Hill for a two-and-a-half hour panel session with a trio of academics.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • R. Kenneth Carty, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia
  • Brian Tanguay, Professor, Political Science, Wilfrid Laurier University
  • Nelson Wiseman, Director, Canadian Studies Program and Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Topics discussed

  • Electoral system
    • Electoral reform in liberal democracies
    • Referenda
      • Education of the public during referendum periods
      • Proportional representation
        • Results of the 2001 British Columbia provincial election

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160725/-1/25378?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 7 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Summary

“After spending much of Monday afternoon quizzing a trio of professors on the pros and cons of changing how Canadians choose their federal representatives, the Special Committee on Electoral Reform kicked off Thursday’s hearings with a whirlwind virtual trip across the Atlantic.

The first witnesses to appear were Trinity College professors Michael Marsh and Michael Gallagher. The committee also heard from University of Toronto professor emeritus and constitutional expert Peter Russell and Ryerson University professor Patrice Dutil before reconvening for a final tele-panel discussion with Australian Electoral Commissioner Tom Rogers and New Zealand chief electoral officer Robert Peden.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Michael Gallagher, Professor of Comparative Politics, Trinity College Dublin
  • Michael Marsh, Emeritus Professor, Trinity College Dublin

Topics discussed

  • Single transferable vote system
    • STV in Ireland
    • Surplus distribution
    • Proportionality
    • Ireland
      • Irish electoral procedure
      • Election turnout
      • Links between deputies and constituents
      • Referenda
        • Referenda in Ireland

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160726/-1/25398?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 8 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Summary

“After spending much of Monday afternoon quizzing a trio of professors on the pros and cons of changing how Canadians choose their federal representatives, the Special Committee on Electoral Reform kicked off Thursday’s hearings with a whirlwind virtual trip across the Atlantic.

The first witnesses to appear were Trinity College professors Michael Marsh and Michael Gallagher. The committee also heard from University of Toronto professor emeritus and constitutional expert Peter Russell and Ryerson University professor Patrice Dutil before reconvening for a final tele-panel discussion with Australian Electoral Commissioner Tom Rogers and New Zealand chief electoral officer Robert Peden.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Patrice Dutil, Professor, Ryerson University
  • Peter Russell, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Topics discussed

  • Electoral candidates and nominations
    • Multi-party system
    • Proportional representation
      • Constitutionality
      • Regional parties
      • Majority and minority governments
        • Governments in Europe
        • Minority governments under proportional systems

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160726/-1/25383?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 9 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Summary

“After spending much of Monday afternoon quizzing a trio of professors on the pros and cons of changing how Canadians choose their federal representatives, the Special Committee on Electoral Reform kicked off Thursday’s hearings with a whirlwind virtual trip across the Atlantic.

The first witnesses to appear were Trinity College professors Michael Marsh and Michael Gallagher. The committee also heard from University of Toronto professor emeritus and constitutional expert Peter Russell and Ryerson University professor Patrice Dutil before reconvening for a final tele-panel discussion with Australian Electoral Commissioner Tom Rogers and New Zealand chief electoral officer Robert Peden.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • New Zealand Electoral Commission: Robert Peden, Chief Electoral Officer
  • Tom Rogers, Electoral Commissioner, Australian Electoral Commission

Topics discussed

  • New Zealand
    • Mixed-member proportional system
    • Electoral boundaries and seat allocation
    • Referenda
    • Seats and districts for Maori people
    • Australia
      • Elections to the House of Representatives and Senate
      • Preferential voting and proportional representation
      • Compulsory voting
      • Electronic voting
      • Voting and voters
        • Voter registration in Australia
        • Scanning of Senate ballots in Australia

Watch the meeting here:

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Meeting No. 10 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Summary

“The all-party panel charged with examining alternatives to the First Past The Post voting system wrapped up its third day of hearings by hosting a panel discussion this afternoon.

On the witness list for the closing round: Institute for Research on Public Policy research director Leslie Seidle, University of Toronto professor emeritus Larry LaDuc and Universite du Quebec a Montreal political science and law dean Hugo Cyr.

During the morning session, MPs heard from former Privy Council Clerk Alex Himelfarb, who testified alongside Universite de Montreal senior researcher Henry Milner and professor Andre Blais.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • André Blais, Professor, Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal
  • Alex Himelfarb, Clerk of the Privy Council, 2002-2006
  • Henry Milner, Senior Researcher, Chair in Electoral Studies, Université de Montréal

Topics discussed

  • Proportional representation
    • Mixed-member proportional system
    • Consequences of proportionality
    • Turnout under proportional systems
    • Voting and voters
      • Attitudes about and satisfaction with democracy
      • Ideological congruence
      • Public consultation
        • Education of the public on different electoral systems

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160727/-1/25395?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 11 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Summary

“The all-party panel charged with examining alternatives to the First Past The Post voting system wrapped up its third day of hearings by hosting a panel discussion this afternoon.

On the witness list for the closing round: Institute for Research on Public Policy research director Leslie Seidle, University of Toronto professor emeritus Larry LaDuc and Universite du Quebec a Montreal political science and law dean Hugo Cyr.

During the morning session, MPs heard from former Privy Council Clerk Alex Himelfarb, who testified alongside Universite de Montreal senior researcher Henry Milner and professor Andre Blais.” – Kady O’Malley

Witnesses

  • Institute for Research on Public Policy: Leslie Seidle, Research Director, Canada's Changing Federal Community
  • Hugo Cyr, Dean, Faculty of Political Science and Law, Université du Québec à Montréal
  • Larry LeDuc, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto

Topics discussed

  • Referenda
    • Referenda in New Zealand
    • Public consultation
      • Constitutional convention
      • Proportional representation
        • Representation of women and visible minorities
        • Ranked ballots
        • Election of the Prime Minister in minority governments
        • Constructive non-confidence motions that propose successor governments

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160727/-1/25399?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 12 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Thursday, July 28, 2016

Summary

“The Special Committee on Electoral Reform wrapped up its latest round of hearings with a final extended panel session featuring political science professors Dennis Pilon and Jonathan Rose and Institute on Governance President Maryantonett Flumian.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Institute on Governance: Maryantonett Flumian, President
  • Dennis Pilon, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University
  • Jonathan Rose, Associate Professor, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University

Topics discussed

  • Participatory democracy
    • Mandatory voting
    • Local representation and constituencies
    • Public consultation
    • Referenda
      • Referenda on Vancouver’s municipal election system

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160728/-1/25402?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 13 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Monday, August 22, 2016

Summary

“During a two-and-a-half-hour session, MPs heard from University of Ottawa professor Benoit Pelletier, the former Quebec Liberal cabinet minister who spearheaded a failed effort to migrate from first-past-the-post to multi-member-based proportional representation. Appearing alongside Pelletier via video was University of California professor emeritus Arend Lijphart, who has devoted his career to comparative politics with an emphasis in the difference between majoritarian and consensus-based democracies.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Benoit Pelletier
  • Arend Lijphart 

Topics discussed

To be added soon...

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160822/-1/25438?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 14 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Monday, August 22, 2016

Summary

“During a two-and-a-half-hour session, MPs heard from University of Ottawa professor Benoit Pelletier, the former Quebec Liberal cabinet minister who spearheaded a failed effort to migrate from first-past-the-post to multi-member-based proportional representation. Appearing alongside Pelletier via video was University of California professor emeritus Arend Lijphart, who has devoted his career to comparative politics with an emphasis in the difference between majoritarian and consensus-based democracies.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Benoit Pelletier
  • Arend Lijphart

Topics discussed

To be added soon...

Watch the meeting soon:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160822/-1/25449?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 15 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Summary

“On the witness list for today: University of Calgary professor Barry Cooper, Centre for e-Democracy director Nicole Goodman and University of Waterloo assistant professor Emmett Macfarlane, who will appear during the morning session, followed by University of Montreal law professor Matthew Harrington, Massey College public policy chair Thomas S. Axworthy and University of Sydney government relations professor Pippa Norris this afternoon.” – Kady O’Malley

Witnesses

  • Barry Cooper
  • Nicole Goodman
  • Emmett Macfarlane
  • Matthew Harrington
  • Thomas Axworthy
  • Pippa Norris

Topics discussed

To be added soon...

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160823/-1/25450?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 15 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Summary

“On the witness list for today: University of Calgary professor Barry Cooper, Centre for e-Democracy director Nicole Goodman and University of Waterloo assistant professor Emmett Macfarlane, who will appear during the morning session, followed by University of Montreal law professor Matthew Harrington, Massey College public policy chair Thomas S. Axworthy and University of Sydney government relations professor Pippa Norris this afternoon.” – Kady O’Malley

Witnesses

  • Barry Cooper
  • Nicole Goodman
  • Emmett Macfarlane
  • Matthew Harrington
  • Thomas Axworthy
  • Pippa Norris

Topics discussed

To be added soon...

Watch the meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160823/-1/25455?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 16 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Summary

“The Standing Committee on Electoral Reform heard still more expert testimony on the pros and cons of moving away from the First Past The Post (FPTP) voting system on Tuesday, wrapping up another intense two days of witness appearances.

During the morning session, University of Calgary professor Barry Cooper, Centre for e-Democracy director Nicole Goodman and University of Waterloo assistant professor Emmett Macfarlane shared their thoughts on a wide range of issues, including the constitutionality of proceeding with changes to the electoral system without a referendum, as well as the potential – and possible pitfalls — to allowing online voting.

The committee also heard from University of Montreal law professor Matthew Harrington, Massey College public policy chair Thomas S. Axworthy and University of Sydney government relations professor Pippa Norris.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Thomas S. Axworthy, Public Policy Chair, Massey College, University of Toronto
  • Matthew P. Harrington, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal
  • Pippa Norris, Professor of Government Relations and Laureate Fellow, University of Sydney, McGuire Lecturer in Comparative Politics, Harvard, Director of the Electoral Integrity Project
  •  

Topics discussed

Watch full meeting here:

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Meeting No. 17 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Monday, August 29, 2016

Summary

“As the all-party Special Committee on Electoral Reform kicked off a final round of hearings on the Hill before hitting the road for three weeks of cross-country consultations, former New Democrat leader Ed Broadbent returned to his erstwhile parliamentary stomping grounds to share his thoughts on the state of Canada’s federal voting system on Monday afternoon.

Over the course of the two-and-a-half-hour session, Broadbent did his best to sell the committee on switching from first-past-the-post to a system of proportional representation — one that, in his view, should maintain the current practice of directly electing local MPs with additional members to be chosen based on share of the vote.

The committee also heard from Quebec’s erstwhile democratic reform minister Jean-Pierre Charbonneau, who is currently involved in a campaign to scrap the first-past-the-post system in his home province, and University of Toronto research chair and associate law professor Yasmin Darwood, who discussed the need for “democratic legitimacy” for any change to be embraced by the public, as well as the potential constitutional implications of changing the federal vote count formula.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Ed Broadbent
  • Jean-Pierre Charbonneau
  • Yasmin Darwood

Topics discussed

Watch full meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160829/-1/25456?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 18 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Summary

“During the morning session, MPs heard from a panel that included Jean-Sebastien Dufresne, who heads up Mouvement Democratie Nouvelle, a group pushing for electoral reform in Quebec; Harvard economics professor Eric Maskin, who contends that a ranked ballot system could have prevented Donald Trump from winning the Republican presidential nomination and University of Toronto associate political science professor, and Ottawa Citizen columnist, Peter John Loewen, who advocates extreme caution in proceeding with any change to the system without fully considering the potential consequences.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Jean Sebastien Dufresne
  • Eric Maskin
  • Peter John Loewen
  •  

Topics discussed

Watch full meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160830/-1/25457?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 19 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Summary

“Two more political science professors took centre stage during the afternoon session: Laval University’s Louis Massicotte, who, in 2011, observed that voters prefer the “clear outcome” produced by the first-past-the-post system and Melanee Thomas from the University of Calgary, who challenged the claim that proportional representation would do much to increase the diversity of representation in the House.

Leadnow.ca electoral reform campaigner Katelynn Northam, meanwhile, shared the results of her efforts to survey group members on their preferred approach to electoral reform, which came out strongly in favour of proportional representation over preferential/ranked ballots or the winner-take-all status quo.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Louis Massicotte
  • Melanee Thomas
  • Katelynn Northam

Topics discussed

Watch full meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160830/-1/25469?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

Meeting No. 20 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Summary

“During the opening session – which was conducted entirely through the magic of video-conferencing – German professors Joachim Behnke and Friedrich Pukelsheim, a mathematician, shared their thoughts on how Canada could potentially “inject” an element of proportional representation into the existing seat distribution system, while Scotland’s electoral management convenor Mary Pitcaithly and electoral commission head Andy O’Neill took questions on their country’s experience with non-first-past-the-post-based voting systems.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Joachim Behnke
  • Friedrich Pukelsheim
  • Mary Pitcaithly
  • Andy O’Neill

Topics discussed

Watch full meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160831/-1/25466?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36

 

Meeting No. 21 ERRE - Special Committee on Electoral Reform

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Summary

“During the afternoon session, University of British Columbia political science professor Richard Johnston appeared alongside IPSOS Public Affairs CEO Darrell Bricker, as well as BC-based columnist and former politician Gordon Gibson, who advised the provincial government on the design and mandate of the Citizens’ Assembly on Electoral Reform.

The committee was also scheduled to hear from Samara executive director Jane Hilderman, Institut du Nouveau Monde strategic advisor Dominic Vezina and Civix president Taylor Gunn.” – Kady O’Malley, Ottawa Citizen

Witnesses

  • Richard Johnston
  • Darrell Bricker
  • Gordon Gibson
  • Jane Hilderman
  • Dominic Vezina
  • Taylor Gunn
  • ·          

Topics discussed

Watch full meeting here:

http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160831/-1/25467?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0%20(Windows%20NT%206.0)%20AppleWebKit/537.36%20(KHTML,%20like%20Gecko)%20Chrome/49.0.2623.112%20Safari/537.36